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  • Development of synthetic anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody and its arthritogenic role.
  • Clin Transl Immunology. 2015 Nov 27;4(11):e51. doi: 10.1038/cti.2015.24. eCollection 2015 Nov. / Kim Y
  • Author Kim Y
    Abstract

    This study was undertaken to develop a novel anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) and to investigate its arthritogenicity in a collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model. The novel ACPA, 12G1, was developed by injecting cyclic citrullinated antigen in mice and subsequently hybridizing the B cells producing citrullinated peptide-specific antibodies with a myeloma cell line. The arthritic joints of mice with CIA and collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) as well as interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) knockout (KO) mice were stained immunohistochemically using the 12G1 antibody. Confocal immunostaining was used to identify colocalization of 12G1 with various citrullinated proteins. 12G1 in the presence or absence of chelating beads was administered to CIA mice on days 21 and 28 after type II collagen (CII) immunization to investigate 12G1 arthritogenecity. 12G1 detected citrullinated proteins in the arthritic joints of all the experimental arthritis models used. Confocal immunostaining showed that 12G1 was colocalized with well-known citrullinated proteins, including vimentin, collagen, anti-immunoglobulin binding protein and fibronectin. Staining of citrullinated proteins using 12G1 was more diffuse in CIA mice compared with CAIA and IL-1Ra KO mice. 12G1 injection apparently acted as a booster of immunization in CIA mice in combination with a single CII immunization, with this effect being abolished when 12G1 was injected with chelating beads. The novel ACPA, 12G1, identified various citrullinated proteins in the arthritic joints of three experimental arthritis models. 12G1-treated mice developed arthritis following a single CII immunization, suggesting an arthritogenic potential for ACPA in CIA mice.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26682058
  • Eupatilin ameliorates collagen induced arthritis.
  • J Korean Med Sci. 2015 Mar;30(3):233-9. doi: 10.3346/jkms.2015.30.3.233. Epub 2015 Feb 16. / Kim J
  • Author Kim J
    Abstract

    Eupatilin is the main active component of DA-9601, an extract from Artemisia. Recently, eupatilin was reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the anti-arthritic effect of eupatilin in a murine arthritis model and human rheumatoid synoviocytes. DA-9601 was injected into collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice. Arthritis score was regularly evaluated. Mouse monocytes were differentiated into osteoclasts when eupatilin was added simultaneously. Osteoclasts were stained with tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and then manually counted. Rheumatoid synoviocytes were stimulated with TNF-α and then treated with eupatilin, and the levels of IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expression in synoviocytes were measured by RT-PCR. Intraperitoneal injection of DA-9601 reduced arthritis scores in CIA mice. TNF-α treatment of synoviocytes increased the expression of IL-6 and IL-1β mRNAs, which was inhibited by eupatilin. Eupatilin decreased the number of osteoclasts in a concentration dependent manner. These findings, showing that eupatilin and DA-9601 inhibited the expression of inflammatory cytokines and the differentiation of osteoclasts, suggest that eupatilin and DA-9601 is a candidate anti-inflammatory agent.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25729243
  • Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells attenuate collagen antibody-induced autoimmune arthritis by inducing expression of FCGIIB receptors.
  • BMC Musculoskelet Disord. 2015 Jul 27;16:170. doi: 10.1186/s12891-015-0634-y. / Yi H
  • Author Yi H
    Abstract

    BACKGROUND:

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from adipose tissue. MSCs have multiple properties including anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects in various disease models and human diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying this wide range of effects need to be explored.

    METHODS:

    Collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) is a unique model in which arthritis is rapidly and strongly induced. ASCs were intraperitoneally infused into CAIA mice before or after arthritis induction. The serum levels of various cytokines, adipokines, and chemokines were measured. The expression of FC gamma receptors (FCGRs) was investigated in peritoneal macrophages ex vivo. RAW264.7 cells and ASCs were co-cultured to elucidate the direct and indirect role of ASCs on FCGR expression.

    RESULTS:

    ASCs attenuated arthritis in CAIA mice. Serum levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-15, resistin, and leptin were reduced in ASC-treated CAIA mice, whereas serum levels of IL-6 and adiponectin were not affected. In peritoneal macrophages isolated from ASC-treated mice, expression of FCGRIIB, which is immunoinhibitory, was higher than that of FCGRI. Co-culture of ASCs with RAW264.7 cells modulated the expression of FCGRs. The expression patterns and timings of peak expression differed among FCGRs. Expression of FCGRIIB was higher and peaked earlier than that of FCGRI. FCGRIII expression was not affected by this co-culture.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    This is a study to show that ASCs have anti-arthritic effects in CAIA mice. Modulation of FCGRs by ASCs might be a therapeutic mechanism in this antibody-associated arthritis model.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26210906
  • A new strategy to deliver synthetic protein drugs: self-reproducible biologics using minicircles.
  • Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 5;4:5961. doi: 10.1038/srep05961. / Yi H
  • Author Yi H
    Abstract

    Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091294
  • A new strategy to deliver synthetic protein drugs: self-reproducible biologics using minicircles.
  • Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 5;4:5961. doi: 10.1038/srep05961. / Yi H
  • Author Yi H
    Abstract

    Biologics are the most successful drugs used in anticytokine therapy. However, they remain partially unsuccessful because of the elevated cost of their synthesis and purification. Development of novel biologics has also been hampered by the high cost. Biologics are made of protein components; thus, theoretically, they can be produced in vivo. Here we tried to invent a novel strategy to allow the production of synthetic drugs in vivo by the host itself. The recombinant minicircles encoding etanercept or tocilizumab, which are synthesized currently by pharmaceutical companies, were injected intravenously into animal models. Self-reproduced etanercept and tocilizumab were detected in the serum of mice. Moreover, arthritis subsided in mice that were injected with minicircle vectors carrying biologics. Self-reproducible biologics need neither factory facilities for drug production nor clinical processes, such as frequent drug injection. Although this novel strategy is in its very early conceptual stage, it seems to represent a potential alternative method for the delivery of biologics.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25091294
  • Generation of disease-specific induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
  • Arthritis Res Ther. 2014 Feb 4;16(1):R41. doi: 10.1186/ar4470. / Lee J
  • Author Lee J
    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION:

    Since the concept of reprogramming mature somatic cells to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) was demonstrated in 2006, iPSCs have become a potential substitute for embryonic stem cells (ESCs) given their pluripotency and "stemness" characteristics, which resemble those of ESCs. We investigated to reprogram fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) to generate iPSCs using a 4-in-1 lentiviral vector system.

    METHODS:

    A 4-in-1 lentiviral vector containing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc was transduced into RA and OA FLSs isolated from the synovia of two RA patients and two OA patients. Immunohistochemical staining and real-time PCR studies were performed to demonstrate the pluripotency of iPSCs. Chromosomal abnormalities were determined based on the karyotype. SCID-beige mice were injected with iPSCs and sacrificed to test for teratoma formation.

    RESULTS:

    After 14 days of transduction using the 4-in-1 lentiviral vector, RA FLSs and OA FLSs were transformed into spherical shapes that resembled embryonic stem cell colonies. Colonies were picked and cultivated on matrigel plates to produce iPSC lines. Real-time PCR of RA and OA iPSCs detected positive markers of pluripotency. Immunohistochemical staining tests with Nanog, Oct4, Sox2, Tra-1-80, Tra-1-60, and SSEA-4 were also positive. Teratomas that comprised three compartments of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm were formed at the injection sites of iPSCs. Established iPSCs were shown to be compatible by karyotyping. Finally, we confirmed that the patient-derived iPSCs were able to differentiate into osteoblast, which was shown by an osteoimage mineralization assay.

    CONCLUSION:

    FLSs derived from RA and OA could be cell resources for iPSC reprogramming. Disease- and patient-specific iPSCs have the potential to be applied in clinical settings as source materials for molecular diagnosis and regenerative therapy.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24490617
  • Induced production of anti-etanercept antibody in collagen-induced arthritis.
  • Mol Med Rep. 2014 Jun;9(6):2301-8. doi: 10.3892/mmr.2014.2127. Epub 2014 Apr 9. / Yi H
  • Author Yi H
    Abstract

    Etanercept is a widespread biological drug for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, which inhibits tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Recently, the presence of antibodies targeting TNF-α inhibitors such as infliximab and adalimumab, was reported. However, few reports have studied etanercept in a mouse model of arthritis. We investigated the induction of anti-etanercept antibody production, along with the antibody's potential interfering effects on the biological function of etanercept, in mice with collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). CIA mice received an intraperitoneal injection of etanercept (25, 100 or 400 µg per mouse). The degree of inflammation and cartilage erosion was evaluated, and the number of osteoclasts in the ankle joints was assessed by TRAP staining. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the serum was measured. To analyze the anti-osteoporotic effect of etanercept, microfocal computed tomography analyses of femurs and tibias were performed. Etanercept treatment decreased both the incidence and severity of arthritis in a dose-dependent manner, except for the highest dose of 400 µg. The mice that were treated with 25 and 100 µg etanercept showed an improvement in inflammation, cartilage damage, and even bone loss. However, mice treated with 400 µg etanercept showed no significant improvement in any of the tested parameters. Using a customized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the presence of the anti-etanercept antibody was detected in the serum in this treatment-refractory group. The therapeutic effect of etanercept was reduced in the CIA mice that developed the anti-etanercept antibody. In conclusion, the production of an anti-etanercept antibody can be induced in CIA mice, and this antibody can considerably reduce the anti-arthritic and anti-osteoporotic effects of etanercept.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24718553
  • Self in vivo production of a synthetic biological drug CTLA4Ig using a minicircle vector.
  • Sci Rep. 2014 Nov 6;4:6935. doi: 10.1038/srep06935. / Rim YA
  • Author Rim YA
    Abstract

    Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin fusion protein (CTLA4Ig, abatacept) is a B7/CD28 costimulation inhibitor that can ward off the immune response by preventing the activation of naïve T cells. This therapeutic agent is administered to patients with autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Its antiarthritic efficacy is satisfactory, but the limitations are the necessity for frequent injection and high cost. Minicircles can robustly express the target molecule and excrete it outside the cell as an indirect method to produce the protein of interest in vivo. We inserted the sequence of abatacept into the minicircle vector, and by successful in vivo injection the host was able to produce the synthetic protein drug. Intravenous infusion of the minicircle induced spontaneous production of CTLA4Ig in mice with collagen-induced arthritis. Self-produced CTLA4Ig significantly decreased the symptoms of arthritis. Injection of minicircle CTLA4Ig regulated Foxp3(+) T cells and Th17 cells. Parental and mock vectors did not ameliorate arthritis or modify the T cell population. We have developed a new concept of spontaneous protein drug delivery using a minicircle vector. Self in vivo production of a synthetic protein drug may be useful when biological drugs cannot be injected because of manufacturing or practical problems.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25374010
  • IL-23 induces receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand expression on CD4+ T cells and promotes osteoclastogenesis in an autoimmune arthritis model.
  • J Immunol. 2008 Jul 15;181(2):1507-18. / Ju JH
  • Author Ju JH
    Abstract

    IL-23, a clinically novel cytokine, targets CD4(+) T cells. Recent IL-1Ra(-/-) mouse studies have demonstrated that IL-23 indirectly stimulates the differentiation of osteoclast precursors by enhancing IL-17 release from CD4(+) T cells. IL-17, in turn, stimulates osteoclastogenesis in osteoclast precursor cells. In this study, we found that IL-23 up-regulates receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand expression by CD4(+) T cells, and thus contributes to osteoclastogenesis. This indirect pathway is mediated by NF-kappaB and STAT3. We have also demonstrated that IL-23 can influence osteoclastogenesis positively under the special conditions in the IL-1-dominant milieu of IL-1Ra(-/-) mice. We propose that IL-23-enhanced osteoclastogenesis is mediated mainly by CD4(+) T cells. The results of this study show that IL-23 is a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of arthritis-associated bone destruction.

    Link https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18606706
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